Tuesday, 30 June 2015

Know Where You Are in the Pecking Order

The staff hierarchy in schools can be confusing for newcomers. But as Gerald Haigh explains, there are some subtle shades of seniority and points of protocol that NQTs would do well to bear in mind.
1 Be clear about who is in charge of you in your various roles. If you’re a form tutor, your ‘boss’ for that area might be the head of year. But if you’re also a subject teacher, you will report to the head of that subject. So make sure you know who is supposed to run what.
2 Listen to your leaders. Yes, you’re bursting with much better ideas and you can’t wait to interrupt, but contain yourself. When the moment comes, ask the right questions and show that you understand what’s going on and what the issues are.
3 Don’t skip stages in the hierarchy. The next person up from your subject leader may be a faculty head or a deputy. You may hate the subject head and love the deputy, but you shouldn’t leapfrog to the deputy to try to alter a decision or settle differences. The deputy will most probably support your immediate manager and your stock might go down.
The above point does not mean that you can’t recruit the top brass to your cause if you have a project that’s not making progress. Wait for the head or deputy to ask how things are going then say “Fine, next term I’m hoping Mr S will let me…”
5 Your manager have right to tell you what to do. That might not seem too obvious if you’re straight out of college, where instructions are usually regarded as open to argument. So if the deputy says “Can you please go and supervise playtime.” Don’t come back with, “Yeah, man let me just grab a coffee…”
6 Try to develop an ear for the subtle shades of meaning to be found in some management phrases. For example, comments such as “You might try this..”or “That might be OK, but it might be better to…” are usually meant as instructions.
7 Do you feel you’re being bullied? Maybe you are, but maybe you’re just not used to acting on instructions from more senior staff. If you think a manager is ill-treating you there are established procedures for making a complaint. Find out what they are and stick to them. If you think you have a grievance, contact your professional association and make dated notes of particular incidents. Vague complaints about attitudes won’t wash.
8 Don’t monopolise or suck up to the senior management. Even if this approach has some short term influence, it will go down like a lead balloon with other staff and won’t win you many friends among the rest of your colleagues.
9 If you want a serious talk with a manager, don’t rely on catching them in the corridor or at break. Ask for a date and time – maybe after school. Make notes on what you want to say.
10 Managers and mentors can often be reticent in voicing criticism, so you might come away form a briefing (after a lesson observation for example) no wiser than when you went in. Always pin them down by asking ‘What exactly do you mean’.
Source: http://newteachers.tes.co.uk/news/know-where-you-are-pecking-order/45715

Monday, 29 June 2015

Working with Other Adults in Your Classroom

Phil Beadle explains the roles of other adults that will work with you in your classroom from time to time
There will be a variety of different people who will sit in your classroom from time to time. Broadly, they will be there to provide you with support with kids who have specific difficulties accessing education, either because they have English as a second language, special educational needs or they are presenting behavioural issues. The people in your class will either be specialist teachers or teaching assistants, and their roles will roughly break down into the following:
EAL support teacher – to provide specialist support to children at an early stage of learning the English language.
Behaviour support teacher – to provide specialist support to children who exhibit behavioural issues.
Learning support teacher – to help kids who have specific difficulties in learning to access the curriculum.
Learning support/teaching assistant – either attached specifically to a child or to the class in general. There are also higher level teaching assistants, who are like the bosses of the normal teaching assistants (kind of).

Your teaching assistant is your best friend

All these people are potentially invaluable to you in your first year, and you must make it a matter of policy to make friends with the teaching assistants especially.
The first and most obvious reason that you should do this is that, despite their lack of professional status and in spite of the degrading, sweat shop salaries they command, every one of them is more experienced in a classroom than you are.
The older teaching assistants, those who have been at the school for years, will have seen it all – from breakfast all the way through to Christmas. They will be able to smell how good/bad/nervous you are, and if you are totally emotionally honest with them, they will help you.
But you must treat them with respect, perhaps even, at an early stage of your career, with deference; you are being paid graduate wages to do roughly the same hours they are working for a pittance. Ergo, they are more passionate about the kids’ education than you are. Most of them have taken the job because they have had children at the school, they will know most of the kids at the school and, as such, they will have mature, to the point of fruity, opinions as to how to deal with them.
Whilst they may indulge in the odd, quiet snicker to themselves whilst you are drowning (though I have always found teaching assistants to be the model of professional discretion), if you do find yourself in this position, then the teaching assistant is your lifebelt. Speak honestly with them about the difficulties you are having, ask politely for help and they will work with you, in the trenches, covering your back as you go over the top. Treat them as if you are in any way better than them (you are not – they have probably seen and dealt with things you couldn’t imagine) and your best friend and chief support will down tools.
One problem is that you and your teaching assistant never get any time together whatsoever to plan what you are going to do. Theoretically, you are supposed to do this, but there is no time allocated for you to do so. The best you will be able to manage is a quick two minutes in the staffroom before the staff briefing. If you do get such an opportunity, however small it is, take it. Your teaching assistant is the only other professional in the room on a regular basis. They will have the same degree of emotional engagement with your classes as you and if you want to discuss strategies, share how much you adore a pupil or just want to scream at how unjust it all is, your teaching assistant will listen.

Source: http://newteachers.tes.co.uk/news/working-other-adults-your-classroom/45963

Saturday, 27 June 2015

Tips to help you deal with sarcasm in the classroom.

Sarcasm is, I am told, the last refuge of scoundrels. I'm not sure why this is. I rather imagine that scoundrels have a great many depths they can aspire (despire?) to that surpass the rascally vice of sarcasm. It is also a descendent of it's great-uncle irony, which at least has a more impressive pedigree, although it suffers from the Achilles Heel of being, for all intents, misunderstood by most who use it - up to and including the great Alannis Morisette, who really just meant 'annoying'.
Sarcasm is also the frequent first weapon of choice by your contemporary classroom urchin. Why is it so often unsheathed? Because its USP is its intrinsic ambiguity. If a kid says to you, 'Wow, Sir, you look realy GREAT today,' when you just know they're conveying their charmless scorn for your bold cardigan/ Ugg boot approach to smart/ casual. The cloak of the double entendre gives them, they assume, immunity from the clobbering hammer of your righteous wrath. Because all they have to do when you start to change colour and hop from foot to foot is say, 'What? I was just saying you looked NICE!.' *turns to rest of the class* 'You can't say anything in this class. GOD!!!' *storms out of room*.
In short sarcasm is the cuss you can't trust... Here's what to do:

Tactically ignore

Don't react to the sarcasm at first, at all. Get on with the lesson. Don't even register that it registered. This policy, similar to 'do not feed the troll' will often starve the situation of fuel.
Note, I said 'tactically ignore' Don't ignore it. Keep the little chap behind after the lesson, and explain to them, clearly and without anger, that you didn't like the tone of the comment, and that if there was a repetition of similar comments, you'd deal with it as if it were an open insult. If they huff and fuss, then at least they don't have an audience. Also, point out that communication is subtle, and context and tone also matter- and you didn't feel the tone was complimentary. That way you don't accuse them of lying, but they know that you're not happy with the comment and you won't tolerate it.

Don't use sarcasm yourself

I say this guardedly, because of course, you can use sarcasm if you're clever with it, and the relationship between the kids and you is one that can endure what is essentially cheek. I use it all the time, but then my kids know where I'm coming from. If I have a new kid whom I don't know, or a class where the relationship isn't strong enough to take a knock, I keep my language direct and unsubtle. If you're sarcastic, then the kids will often be sarcastic back, because they''ll model behaviour from you, or at least take their boundary cues from you.


This is for when you've made it clear that you don't want any comments beyond the standard classroom menu (eg appearance, criticisms of the lesson etc.) and kids still persist. Calmly (always calmly, losing the rag is rarely profitable) send the kid out, or set a detention, or have them removed, or whatever you do.
Sarcasm is, depending on the context, a direct challenge to you, and an attempt to mock you, the lesson and your dignity. If you're going to lead them into a brave new world of education, you can't be a laughing stock. That doesn't mean you can't laugh at yourself, but never at your expense, and never solely for their amusement.

Good luck *rolls eyes*
Source: http://newteachers.tes.co.uk/news/tips-help-you-deal-sarcasm-classroom/46079

Thursday, 25 June 2015

Forget about France and Spain – Kent has been named Europe's top spot for a family holiday

Kent named Europe's top destination for a family holiday: Garden of England beats Kerry in Ireland and Germany's Black Forest to win title

  • Garden of England chosen by experts as Europe's best family destination
  • Island of Skomer and Marloes Sands, Wales combine to take ninth spot
  • Kent singled out for the White Cliffs of Dover and seaside town of Margate

The county of Kent is Europe's top spot for a family holiday, according to travel guide experts.

The so-called Garden of England was chosen as the best family destination by compilers of Lonely Planet's Best in Europe 2015, with County Kerry in Ireland in second place.
Two other UK destinations - the island of Skomer off Wales's Pembrokeshire coast and the nearby Marloes Sands - were combined by the compilers and took ninth place in the 10-strong family holiday list.

Top spot: Kent was named as Europe's number one destination for a family holiday. Judges singled out the seaside town of Margate (pictured)

Top spot: Kent was named as Europe's number one destination for a family holiday. Judges singled out the seaside town of Margate (pictured)

The White Cliffs of Dover (pictured) were another important factor in handing Kent top spot in the European awards
Kent was seen as being 'full of opportunities for time travel to intrigue curious young minds'. Pictured are some of the county's well known oast houses

Kent was seen as being 'full of opportunities for time travel to intrigue curious young minds'. Pictured are some of the county's well known oast houses
Family friendly: The resort of Broadstairs, which was once home to Charles Dickens, was singled out by judges

Family friendly: The resort of Broadstairs, which was once home to Charles Dickens, was singled out by judges

Kent was seen as being 'full of opportunities for time travel to intrigue curious young minds'.
Singled out were the resort of Broadstairs, which was once home to Charles Dickens, the White Cliffs of Dover and the seaside town of Margate which has become 'gentrified without losing its personality'.

Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3127379/Kent-named-Europe-s-destination-family-holiday-Garden-England-beats-Kerry-Ireland-Germany-s-Black-Forest-win-title.html

Time Management Tips for Teachers!

Here are some small, doable steps that will help you manage how overwhelmed you feel.

Get the Noise Out of Your Head

The key to getting the noise out of your head and get a grip on things is to first make a plan. Keep telling yourself “First things first,” and keep breathing deeply. There are two good ways of doing this; either schedule tasks on a calendar or create a mind map of everything you should be doing. Whichever way you choose, do it as if your life depended on it! I plan everything in advance and I mean everything! Once you have everything on your list, it’s time to prioritize. Start with items that are most critical and apply the Do, Delegate, Defer, or Dump approach. 

Resolve that for each item you will either:

Do it - put it on the calendar for you to do.

Delegate it - decide if you can delegate the task to a teaching assistant and either write a note with the request and clear direction or put a meeting on the calendar to discuss it with them.

Defer it - decide the task is not a priority at this time and leave it on the list to revisit it once all your priorities are sorted.

Dump it - determine the item is simply not important enough and that it is coming off your list.

Make Sure You Create a Good Morning Routine

The way you start your day can make or break it. If you start well, chances are your day will become good. But if you don’t, then your day might not be as good as it could be. That’s why you need to have a good morning routine. Routines are helpful because they optimize your time and help you conserve precious mental energy for the important decisions. Get up early and take control of your day. Begin by jump-starting your mind and body. One of the hardest aspects to starting the day can be simply getting out of bed. I place the alarm across the room as it forces me to get up and out of bed. Once your alarm goes off, adding additional sensory stimuli, such as turning on a bedroom light or browsing your phone for a few minutes, can help energize the brain. I drink two pints of ice cold water, not only does it give a slight shock to your system it helps to clean out your system and to re hydrate. Even slight dehydration has been shown to induce tension, anxiety and fatigue which is no way to start the day. Exercise should be an important part of your morning routine. Exercise will give your mind an energy boost. As a result, you will be able to think more clearly and accomplish more during the day. You will feel more confident and refreshed and as a consequence you will be able to maintain your enthusiasm. Follow this with a healthy breakfast. 

Advice on marking

It’s almost impossible to comment and review every piece of work that your students do.  Instead establish a pattern of regular marking that is sharply focused with achievable marking targets, such as ten books or assignments per night and stick to it!. Have a cut off time in the evening and do not work beyond it. You can make your life easier by using a fair proportion of peer and self assessed tasks in your lessons.  Pupils want to be engaged in their learning, so get them involved in the management of their learning space and assessment of each other’s learning. A point to note is that when marking work be aware that distractions will kill your productivity. Therefore before you begin your first task make sure your desk is free from clutter. Make sure your email alerts are turned off, shut done all extraneous browsers on your computer, silence your phone, you do not want to be bothered by your various forms of social media. Don’t tempt yourself with anything that will catch your eye or ear or pull your thoughts away from what you are doing.  Work-life balanceDo not work more than 50 hours per week! Try to make sure you have a day off each week when you do no school work and you plan a relaxing event. You need some social time to keep some semblance of normal life and keep things in perspective.  Make sure you do something unconnected with teaching that is relaxing and enjoyable each weekend.Important one-off family events, such as weddings are important. Don't be too afraid to ask if you can go. You might want to check what the precedent is but always make a polite request directly to the head teacher in person and be prepared to team up with colleagues to cover each other from time-to-time to oil the wheels.

Personal Organisation

Thought multi-tasking was an attribute? Think again! Several important studies have recently come to light that revealed multitasking to actually be counterproductive. If you think you'll do more in less time just by completing two or three tasks at once, you're simply wrong. I often use the timer on my iPhone to help me focus. Whenever the timer runs, I have to work on the task. If I’m going to switch to something else, I will have to stop the timer. This makes me less likely to get distracted because I have to consciously stop the timer to switch to something else.Give yourself a time limit. Always have a cut off point when your work will finish. Overwork will not help anyone in the long run.

Advice on lesson planning!

Don’t try and reinvent the wheel! When teachers experience overload we often find that they are over-planning their lessons or trying to generate too many resources themselves. It's really important to build up a bank of readily available shared resources and to develop an agile approach to teaching that enables you to get students working and engaged without relying too heavily on you and your materials. Collaborate more and try and team up with colleagues to share the planning tasks. The @TeacherToolkit Five Minute Lesson Plan is a big hit for a reason; it models skeletal lesson planning that is time efficient and effective.Avoid energy drains
If you have negative voices around you, take yourself away from them. People love to moan and sometimes we all need to let off steam but don't surround yourself with the perpetual moaners in the staffroom; they will bring you down. Steer clear of staffroom politics and gossip. It wastes time and is often negative and unproductive. Be your own judge of character.

Writing Reports

Plan ahead for report writing and use statement banks intelligently.  Most schools have an electronic system for generating reports, which includes a database of standard phrases that can be tailored to suit most circumstances. Some schools use one of the non-pupil days for this. If your school does not then commit to a time-frame for report writing well in advance and stick with it. www.schoolreportwriter.com  can be a useful resource. Never be afraid to ask colleagues for supportBe proactive about problems by asking for help if you need it. Don’t think that this is a sign of weakness; on the contrary, it is a sign of strength and is a good way to get the support you need to resolve the problem. There is almost always someone at work, it may be a teacher from another department, who will listen and give you some time, and will be on your side. Talking therapies are great if you can talk to the right sort of person. Often you don't need advice, just someone to listen to you. Plan a focused observation of an experienced colleague, and discuss this beforehand you’re your tutor.Reflect and celebrateMake sure you take the time to reflect on your day, figure out what worked well and what didn't. Reflection is guaranteed to increase your future productivity. In order to keep your motivation high it is important to then celebrate what you have achieved. It can be as simple as crossing off the items in your to do list. Accomplishment is a powerful feeling. Having a personal reward system will do wonders for your motivation. Seeing how far you have gone will motivate you to go even further.



Tuesday, 23 June 2015

Behaviour Managment - Lion Tamer or Horse Whisperer?

There are subtle, assertive ways to manage students’ behaviour successfully that do not involve aggression and confrontation
If you are not an advocate of the aggressive, sanction-based method of behaviour management, then some schools can be a very lonely place to work.
I met a teacher recently whose department head wanted her to manage behaviour as he did: confrontationally. Her method, which was proving very successful, was more subtle and nuanced than her colleague’s explosion of anger at unpredictable intervals. That her method was working was not enough for her manager, and she ended up moving schools so that she could manage behaviour in a way that worked for her.

Confidence vs. assertiveness

Unfortunately, there are many similar department heads out there who have bought into the lie that children are dangerous subversives. Not satisfied with being persistently hostile to the children in their own classes, they want the entire department to replicate their practice. They even produce books that tell everyone exactly how to teach each lesson, and new rules start to appear that are more stringent than is necessary.
Under the leaders who demand this iron-hand approach, more measured, assertive practice is being crushed. Even teachers who have excellent behaviour in their classes are being asked to give more detentions. And those who do not punish regularly, or who fail to adopt a more dictatorial stance, are told that they “lack confidence” in the classroom. This terminology begins to appear on observation forms, is whispered in middle- management meetings and is written into continuing professional development plans.
Confidence should not be confused with assertiveness. You can be wonderfully assertive with your students without being a confident character, and you can manage behaviour without resorting to ugly aggression or stupefying sanctions. In short, it is just as valid to be a horse whisperer as it is to be a lion tamer.
Being a horse whisperer is about adopting a sure-footed, assertive approach that is a daily drip-feed of consistency. Here, you use simple sentence stems that convey assertiveness: “I need you to… “; “You will be… “; “In two minutes I am going to come back and see… “; “I know that you… “.

Subtle ways to influence behaviour

It is also not about a teacher’s physical presence. Physical assertiveness is not dependent on something as obvious as size but on the nuances of movement, pace, personal space and appropriate distance. It is body language that is tailored to the needs of the individual child. The best teachers working with the toughest classes are often no match for their students physically. They have had to find more subtle ways to influence behaviour.
As well as sentence stems and tailored body language, you can also use assertive structures: closed choices; deal-making; encouraging students to take responsibility for reacting appropriately by saying things such as “We need to have an adult conversation to resolve this”; and lastly showing belief, even in the face of overwhelming odds - a statement such as “I can feel that this is going to be an excellent session/lesson” can make all the difference.
You also have a choice as to when you engage with bad behaviour - you do not have to meet it head-on. Rather than confronting it, you may choose to record it and address it at a more appropriate time, ignore it or walk away and consider your response. Assertiveness is knowing that you can control your own behaviour and make considered, appropriate choices in responding to students.
All the above tactics are just as assertive as the aggressive method of standing your ground, saying “no” and repeating your demand (the “broken record” technique) - if not more so. Yet they are being lost from the repertoire of behaviour management strategies in favour of the didactic, nice-nasty dichotomy insisted on by many “lion tamer” department heads.
There are certainly strong arguments for the role of lion tamers, but there is just as valid a set of arguments for those more quietly assertive horse whisperers. Calm, assertive certainty may not belong to the “shock and awe” tactics that excite dictatorial middle leaders, yet it will allow you to teach the children a personal discipline that does not rely on the lion tamer’s whip. And teachers should have the freedom to embrace that strategy for as long as they can prove it works.

In short

  • Although department heads may demand an aggressive approach to behaviour management, more subtle techniques can be just as effective.
  • You can use simple assertive sentence stems to show control, such as “I need you to… ” and “You will be… “.
  • You do not have to be physically big to use body language well - the nuances of movement, pace, personal space and appropriate distance can be very powerful when tailored to a child’s needs.
  • Assertive structures can also be adopted: closed choices, deal-making, positivity and treating students as adults.
  • Choosing when to tackle bad behaviour is also important. You do not always have to meet it head-on at the moment it occurs.
Source: http://newteachers.tes.co.uk/content/behaviour-management-lion-tamer-or-horse-whisperer

Thursday, 18 June 2015

Using observation to sharpen your behaviour management!

It's too easy to get stuck in a rut when it comes to your behaviour management techniques - but observing other teachers can help shake it up
It's easy to get stuck in a groove with behaviour management: we become accustomed to our routines, which is why we call them routines after all.
This is how we often work as teachers; we scamper into a place that offers us the illusion of security and, unless we are vigilant, we become residents there, rather than tourists. Here are some simple ideas for shaking up your assumptions, and actually getting better at behaviour management rather than simply treading water.

1. Observe another teacher

This is one of the best things you can do with your training time. We don’t learn from books half as well as we do from watching teaching in action, and then doing it ourselves. Watch a teacher you admire, or one who is renowned for good control. Watch what they do. Take notes on nothing but this feature of the lesson; what do the kids do; how does the teacher react/ pro-act? What happens next? Watch as though you were a scientist, looking for evidence, but don't go in with any assumptions. What works? That's all that matters.

2. Have a conversation with the teacher

Talk to them about what happened, and ask for their perspective on what happened. As an adult, your education should be a partnership with the coach/observed teacher. Your opinion has validity, and should be measured against the person you observed. Marry their insights to your own. If they're good, they'll realise that their way may not work for you, so be sensitive to that possibility. What is it about them that makes their way work for them? What would work for you?

3. Do it

Take away perhaps two, three central resolutions or techniques from the lesson, not any more - no one can implement too many novelties into their routine simultaneously. Have the same teacher observe you, and have a conversation about it later.
If you want to take it up a level, why not have yourself filmed and then see how you actually teach, as opposed to how you think you do. You will be, I guarantee, amazed, horrified and possibly intrigued. It's one of the best and bravest things you can do.
Source: http://newteachers.tes.co.uk/news/using-observation-sharpen-your-behaviour-management/46157

Wednesday, 17 June 2015

Gifted and Talented Pupils

Tom Bennett offers advice on how to cater for the gifted and talented pupils within your class
There will be, in every school, some exceptionally bright or talented students; statistically, this is very probable, in any population with over a few hundred. OK, so maybe they’re not Mozart or a Stephen Hawking, but they will display abilities far beyond those of their contemporaries.
For a start, they are usually capable of much harder work than other students, so they often finish earlier, and produce work of higher quality – often, but not always. If they finish first their attention is unoccupied, and some are likely to get up to monkey tricks.
They may also suffer from the dark side of giftedness: arrogance. More able pupils can sometimes be disdainful of people they believe aren’t as bright as they are, because of course they’ve got it all figured out at the age of 11, haven’t they? They can be particularly scornful of newer teachers, especially if the new teachers don’t sound confident about their subject matter.
Of course, these are challenges from the teacher’s point of view. From the pupil’s point of view, if your lessons don’t stretch them, or occupy their minds at an appropriate level, then they might easily get bored, switch off, and certainly fail to get as much out of their education with you than they should do.
Imagine you were asked to complete an entire book of colouring-in: you, with your degree and everything. You would go mental in about five minutes. That’s how many gifted and talented pupils feel in the classroom, the music room and the training field if they’re not provided for in the classroom.
• Make sure the work actually challenges the more able in the class. Just because they’re working, and they seem occupied or quiet, doesn’t mean they’re not bored out of their minds and dreaming their escape from the prison they think they’re in.
This doesn’t have to mean tons of extra worksheets and activities for them, think of activities that they can do in different ways. You could allow some more able students to answer a set of questions as one essay, for example.
 Get more able students to present projects to the class. Get them to share their thoughts with the class during question time in order to provide role models of good practice to the other students, and so they can at least see what’s possible.
• Use them to deepen and broaden debates and thinking for the whole class; ask the less able students an easier question that they are likely to get; praise the student when they (hopefully) get it, and then ask a related, harder question and direct it to a more able student. That way everyone feels involved, successful and challenged appropriately.
 Expect more from them. This is good advice for every student, but expect fantastic results from more able students. If they produce something beneath what you know they are capable of, push them a little harder.
• An easy way to think about dealing with gifted pupils is to imagine if they were in the year above the one they presently occupy. That would be a good challenge for most of them. This doesn’t mean giving them next year’s textbooks (although it could), but thinking about the skills and content they will be  reaching for in the next year.

Tuesday, 16 June 2015

Tried and tested questioning strategies

Questioning is a valuable tool to use in lessons and these techniques will help you get the most from your pupils
Questioning is most effective when it allows pupils to become fully involved in the learning process. While you are planning your lesson it is absolutely vital that you think about the types of questions you will be asking your pupils. You also need to be clear on what the intended outcomes of your questions/answer session should be. This advice on questioning techniques will help you plan your Q&A session effectively. 

Provide visual stimuli to support your question/answer sessions

Use photographs, drawings, prints and video clips as the bases for ‘entry’ or ‘starter’ tasks. Make use of animated clipart as visual clues for some of your questions; for example, if you were attempting to get the pupils to show their understanding of the term ‘urbanization’ you could start by displaying walking cartoon figures. Hopefully the pupils would be able to deduce from this image that urbanization involves the movement of people. The next animation you could display would be of a city with factories belching out smoke. With a little teasing you would be able to get the pupils to understand that urbanization involves people moving to urban areas to work in factories. At this point you could display the definition of urbanization in textual form.
The point about this strategy is that pupils will have already arrived at the answer before any text has been displayed. 

Make your question/answer sessions kinaesthetic by using a value continuum

Ask pupils to move to a specific corner of the room according to whether they ‘strongly agree’, ‘agree’, ‘disagree’ or ‘strongly disagree’ on a particular issue. Allow and encourage pupils to move positions as new material is presented and/or when further questions are asked. Adopt the same technique using a linear continuum.

Use the ‘mirroring’ technique

When your pupils ask you a question, simply ask the same question back. For example, Pupil: Why do some people eat so much? Teacher: Good question, why do you think some people eat so much? Doing this encourages pupils’ thinking skills and provides them with more ownership of the discussion.

Use the ‘hot air balloon’ technique

You need to get yourself a big sheet of paper and draw on it a hot air balloon tethered to the ground. On the balloon write the name of the project. Eg ‘Going Green’, then pose the following five questions to the class:
  1. Who needs to be on board? (Which people/things need to be on board for the idea to work?)
  2. What needs to be right for the project to take off? (What human and material resources will be required?)
  3. What is holding it back? (What social, economic, physical obstacles could stand in the way of the launch of this idea?)
  4. What will really make it fly? (Things like enthusiasm, incentives, etc.)
  5. What might blow the balloon off course? (What problems could cause the project to fail?)

Make full use of pupils’ contributions in question/answer sessions

Use the ‘bouncing’ technique: Josh … What do you think of Rachel’s idea? ‘Mary, how do you feel about what Josh has just said?

Use the ‘think, pair and share’ technique

Ask your pupils a question before pairing them up to discuss the issues. Having done this put the pupils into groups so that they can discuss the question further. When you are ready for pupils to give you their answers, seek group responses rather than responses from specific individuals. Many pupils feel safer making contributions when teachers use this questioning format.

Model the thinking process by ‘thinking aloud’ in front of your pupils

What am I going to say/write/do now? Why have I stopped? What is my problem? What sort of problem is this? Where have I seen this before? Who can help me? What do I need? What is the next step? Is there a better way? What alternatives are there?
Get pupils to ‘think aloud’ when they are preparing to offer their responses. Doing this raises the status of the ‘thinking process’ rather than just focusing pupils’ attention on their final answer.

Provide questions designed to explore pupils’ attitudes towards social and moral issues

Present pupils with moral dilemmas and produce a menu of questions to support the activity. For example, if you had been an adult in Hitler’s Germany would you have joined the Nazi Party? Be prepared to justify your answer.

Provide pupils with opportunities to ask questions

On occasions, allow pupils to determine the direction of a lesson by the questions that they ask. For example, display a photograph or show a video clip of the topic under study and get pupils to ask what they want to know about this issue. Plan a section of the lesson given over entirely to pupils asking questions.

Use the ‘hot-seating’ method

Hot-seating is where a pupil adopts the role of a character from a book or a play, from a period in history, from another country, etc, and where he or she is put under a spotlight and asked questions by the audience. Because he or she is required to ‘stay in character’, even the most reserved pupil will find this process more comfortable than you might expect.
Source: http://newteachers.tes.co.uk/news/tried-and-tested-questioning-strategies/45866